Although the discussions on post-Islamism were more concerned with Iran, Egypt, and Turkey, after the downfall of the Baathist regime, Iraq also entered the current scholarship on post-Islamism.
Thus, Russia is turning to countries in Africa with which it had close ties during the Soviet period, especially in North Africa and the Horn of Africa, and has already signed economic and military agreements with Egypt, Algeria, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Mozambique, and the Central African Republic.
Gaza depends on other sources to cover the rest of its needs including two Egyptian and Israeli supply lines.
This started with the Egyptian government's signing of the Camp David Agreement, in 1978-79 and, later, the Oslo Accords between the Palestinian leadership and Israel, in 1993.
Moreover, several Middle Eastern and African countries such as Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Egypt expressed interest in purchasing the Turkish UAVs in the future.
Among the countries that supported Saied's measures immediately after they were announced, are two countries that have great interests in Libya, which outweigh their interests in Tunisia – namely, Egypt and the UAE.
For instance, in Egypt’s Zohr field, which was discovered in mid-2015, production started at the end of 2017, approximately 28 months after the discovery.
By the time Hezbollah was up and running in the 1980s, Israel had beat the conventional armies of the Sunni-dominated Arab world into subjugation and two out of its four neighboring Arab states, Egypt and Jordan, were on the path to sign peace treaties with it.
ollowing the First Gulf War, the foreign ministers of Syria, Egypt, and the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), met in Damascus and agreed on a new security cooperation initiative for the Gulf which came to be known as the “Damascus Declaration.
It was put to use throughout the mid and late 1970s when, then-US Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, labored to broker a deal between Egypt and Israel in the hope of fragmenting the Arab political front and, eventually, sidelining Cairo entirely from the ‘Arab-Israeli conflict’.
At the same time, Iran because of its Shiite majority and religious rule, Egypt because of Al-Azhar University and its long-standing influence on global Islam, and Turkey because of its legacy as one of the largest Muslim empires, all have social capital and symbolic legitimacy among Muslims.
The aim was to scare refugees not to return, but also to force those who had managed to stay in their homes in what became Israel to move to the West Bank, which was under Jordanian control, and the Gaza Strip, which was under Egyptian control until 1967.
In 2015-2020, Egypt, Algeria, and Iraq were the main importers of Russia’s weapons.
While considering the protests in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Libya as a phenomenon inspired by its Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iran regarded the mass protests in Syria and Iraq as a conspiracy initiated by its enemies: the Zionists, the West, and their regional allies like Saudi Arabia and the UAE.
Religion in Mali and Senegal Liberation Theology in the Middle East In the Middle East, the theology of liberation has gained prominence in countries which suffer from oppression with attempts made to create a movement of Arab theology in Egypt.
According to Spotify, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Morocco, and Algeria were the top five streamers of K-pop between 2014 and 2020.