Read: Russia’s War in Ukraine Gives Iran the Upper Hand in SyriaIt is essential to establish a UN structure in which the peace interests of the international community—not of certain countries—can be adopted as the main priority.
The Trump administration supported projects that exclude Turkey from the Eastern Mediterranean natural gas equation, namely the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum and the East-Med project, and approved the creation of alliance zones that would limit Ankara's presence in areas such as Syria and Libya.
Read: Libyans Themselves Are Best Suited to Handle Their ProblemsWith its military existence in Syria, Moscow found a door to knock on: it sent infamous Wagner mercenaries in support of Haftar and built another passage for itself between Sirte and Jufra, critical spots in Libya neighboring the Eastern Mediterranean.
NATO was hesitant to get involved in the uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa after the Iraq and Afghanistan experiences, and failed to reach a consensus among its member states on Syria or Libya.
The commentator on the French television channel BFM put it thus, “They were not Syrians fleeing the bombings of the Syrian regime, but Europeans, with cars like ours, who simply set out to save their lives.
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In the MENA region, Iran has conducted trade in national currencies with Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq, and is seeking further trade with Turkey which has been reluctant in growing its trade in national currencies due to sanctions.
From the beginning of the Syrian uprising, several Arab countries were almost unanimous in isolating the Syrian regime to punish it for its violations of Arab League resolutions and the rights of the Syrian people.
Read: What Role Can Turkey Play Between Russia and Ukraine in Antalya?Furthermore, Russia and Turkey developed a model of damage control through high-level dialogue, compartmentalization of issues, and keeping cooperation intact, especially in Syria, Ukraine, and Libya, where Ankara and Moscow have different approaches.
A report by the Syrians for Truth and Justice (STJ) organization noted that the recruitment process is “still in its early stages,” whereby the personal information of volunteers is being collected in preparation for their training by Russian forces.
Japan even announced it would admit refugees from Ukraine, a significant move since for decades the country has been criticized for flouting international norms of refugee protection—and was criticized by G7 partners for its stated reluctance to accept Syrian refugees during the 2015 crisis.