Under Putin’s leadership, Russia started taking some concrete steps in line with a hegemonic policy through its military power outside the country, the most explicit examples of which can be seen in the cases of Syria and Ukraine.
Germany has had a pivotal role in handling various crises over the last decade including the Eurozone crisis, the Ukraine crisis, the Refugee crisis and the shifting dynamics in the wake of Trumpian politics amid an existing leadership crisis within the EU, EU’s struggle for democratic legitimacy and the rise of populism and anti-elitist sentiments that harbor Eurosceptic reactions.
In another agreement signed in the same year, it was announced that France sold two mistral warships (initially produced for Russia but the sales were suspended because of Europe’s sanctions following the war in Ukraine) for about 1 billion U.
While Sweden was the first country to take steps in utilizing blockchain in order to secure and manage documents by storing land registry on the database, Bitfury signed the largest state blockchain deal with Ukraine, which will see the transfer of all the country’s electronic information to the database.
This announcement displayed the importance of the Syrian War for Russia, as according to this statement, the Syrian Civil War was added to the list of “victories” for Russia – most recent ones including Georgia and Ukraine/Crimea Wars.
While Ukraine’s efforts to disengage from Russia, and the UK’s withdrawal from the EU through Brexit can seem as two different instances of separation, their reasoning does not differ from other disintegration inclinations.
During a joint news conference with his Ukrainian counterpart Petro Porochenko in Kiev, Ukraine, President Erdogan stated that “The embassy’s decision to suspend all non-immigrant visa applications is upsetting.
Although the second term of the Obama administration was a nightmare for traditional US allies including Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Ukraine, Obama’s policies produced a favorable environment for the US’s rivals like Iran, Cuba, and Russia.
Bush continued this policy to its furthest extent, by inviting even Georgia and Ukraine into NATO, although key European members of NATO blocked the extension of the NATO Membership Action Plan to these two post-Soviet republics.
What some observers label as Russia’s irrational and erratic behavior in international politics began in earnest after the overthrow of the pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych government in Ukraine following months of protests in February 2014, and its replacement by a staunchly pro-Western government.