The Suez Canal is a man-made sea passage in Egypt, connecting Europe and Asia through the Red Sea.
For instance, in Egypt’s Zohr field, which was discovered in mid-2015, production started at the end of 2017, approximately 28 months after the discovery.
By the time Hezbollah was up and running in the 1980s, Israel had beat the conventional armies of the Sunni-dominated Arab world into subjugation and two out of its four neighboring Arab states, Egypt and Jordan, were on the path to sign peace treaties with it.
ollowing the First Gulf War, the foreign ministers of Syria, Egypt, and the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), met in Damascus and agreed on a new security cooperation initiative for the Gulf which came to be known as the “Damascus Declaration.
It was put to use throughout the mid and late 1970s when, then-US Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, labored to broker a deal between Egypt and Israel in the hope of fragmenting the Arab political front and, eventually, sidelining Cairo entirely from the ‘Arab-Israeli conflict’.
At the same time, Iran because of its Shiite majority and religious rule, Egypt because of Al-Azhar University and its long-standing influence on global Islam, and Turkey because of its legacy as one of the largest Muslim empires, all have social capital and symbolic legitimacy among Muslims.
The aim was to scare refugees not to return, but also to force those who had managed to stay in their homes in what became Israel to move to the West Bank, which was under Jordanian control, and the Gaza Strip, which was under Egyptian control until 1967.
In 2015-2020, Egypt, Algeria, and Iraq were the main importers of Russia’s weapons.
While considering the protests in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Libya as a phenomenon inspired by its Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iran regarded the mass protests in Syria and Iraq as a conspiracy initiated by its enemies: the Zionists, the West, and their regional allies like Saudi Arabia and the UAE.
Religion in Mali and Senegal Liberation Theology in the Middle East In the Middle East, the theology of liberation has gained prominence in countries which suffer from oppression with attempts made to create a movement of Arab theology in Egypt.
According to Spotify, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Morocco, and Algeria were the top five streamers of K-pop between 2014 and 2020.
Their presence stretches from the Canary Islands of Spain to Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt.
Read: Has the Libyan Civil War Come to an End?The United States maintains important bilateral relations with foreign patrons on both sides of the Libyan divide, namely Turkey, UAE, Egypt, France, and Russia, and is working to apply pressure on these actors to withdraw from Libya’s conflict by pushing all parties to respect the UN arms embargo, which the UN Panel of Experts recently argued was “totally ineffective.
These exports also facilitated the Turkish exports to Egypt (BMC-Ejder), Kuwait (Ejder), Oman (FNSS-Pars), Qatar (BMC-Ejder Yalçın, Amazon, KIRPI II), and Tunisia (BMC-Ejder Yalçın, Vuran) with procurement deals worth more than US$2 billion.
The other parties with which China has cultivated closer economic ties – Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Israel, Egypt, and Turkey – have less of a sanguine perspective.
For example, NYPD agents would document how often Muslims students prayed during school trips, which Egyptian businesses shut their doors for daily prayers, which restaurants would show al-Jazeera, and which Newark businesses sold halal products and alcohol.
In 2003, the Greek Cypriot leadership signed a maritime deal with Egypt for gas exploration in the Eastern Mediterranean.
In East Africa, there is an ongoing conflict between Somalia and Kenya over a maritime border dispute, rising tension between Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), and a border crisis between Sudan and Ethiopia, while Nigeria in West Africa recently opened its land borders with neighbors which were closed for 16 months.