In the post-colonial era, nominally independent yet weak and incompetent Arab rulers again made a cosmetic attempt at uniting their forces in 1948, this time in a military alliance to defeat the nascent Israeli state and expel the Jewish occupation of Palestinian Arab lands.
Read: Israel's Vaccine Diplomacy Extends to Latin AmericaCivilian mobilization since 2019 can be credited with the government’s relenting to public pressure and holding a referendum on whether the dictatorship constitution should be scrapped.
The country has shown sensitivity towards its relationship with Israel and has kept a balance so as not to risk losing its major trade partners in the Gulf.
ahmoud Hijazi was the first Palestinian political prisoner to be freed from an Israeli jail on April 17, 1971.
For Algiers, the installation of an Israeli embassy in Rabat means that the Jewish state will be at its doorstep.
A file from the French Directorate of Military Intelligence (DRM), dated to April 15, 1994, mentions “specific requests for ammunition and backing in transporting arms purchased in Israel and Poland” by the defense attaché of the Rwandan embassy in Paris.
Since the second decade of the Twentieth century to today, the (re)production of masses of Palestinians as the hosts and hostages of zones of encounter with arms has been the condition of Israeli existence, citizenship and sensoria, national history and spatiality.
Great power competition between the United States, China, and Russia, as well as a host regional tensions between middle powers like Iran, Israel, Turkey, and Gulf states, will test the strength of international institutions and multilateralism moving forward, a reality that does may not bode well for international cooperation and conflict resolution in the future.
Read: What Drives Pakistan on the Recognition of Israel: The Arab Gulf, India, or the Pakistanis?Fortunately for Pakistan, India’s lobbying campaign has been somewhat toothless due to the good relationship it has with China.
The other parties with which China has cultivated closer economic ties – Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Israel, Egypt, and Turkey – have less of a sanguine perspective.
They have traveled back to Palestine, which more often they simply call “home,” with some being rejected entry by the Israeli occupants of their lands.
Bahrain, which is under an increasing amount of Emirati influence, aligned with the UAE (rather than Saudi Arabia, as it might have done in the past) on both the questions of renormalizing relations with Syria and establishing full-fledged formalized ties with Israel.
It operated militarily all around the Syrian territory over the years, as it saw the potential loss of its Syrian ally as an existential threat for the axis of resistance against Israel, which includes Hezbollah, Iran, and Syria.
The targeting of Muslims through discriminatory domestic policy is aligned with America’s foreign policy interests, as seen in the hyper-surveillance and targeting of Palestinians to protect Israel’s (fracturing) hegemony of support in American government and society.
Today, Turkey’s Eastern Mediterranean policy depends on the Turkey-Libya EEZ deal that challenges the Mediterranean Energy Plan of Israel, Cyprus, and Greece.