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Iran’s Proxies in the Middle East: A Halted Transition to Politics?

The country stayed neutral during the two World Wars, “solved” the oil nationalization crisis in the early 1950s without facing military aggression - unlike Gamal Abdel Nasser’s Egypt which was jointly attacked by Israel, the United Kingdom, and France upon President Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956 - and even got away with the Iran hostage crisis at the end of 1979 without an open military confrontation.

The Montreux Convention and the Russia-Ukraine War

Read: Russia-Ukraine War: Why India, Israel, and Pakistan Have Chosen SilenceIn order to ensure the security of the Black Sea littoral states, including Turkey, and the Black Sea itself, the convention limits the total tonnage of military ships that non-Black Sea littoral states can keep in the sea in peacetime to 30,000, and up to 45,000 tons under certain conditions, and to 21 days of stay (Article 18).