Read: Why Turkey Is Conducting Operation Claw-Lock in Northern Iraq NowMoreover, Turkey is already carrying out Operation Claw-Rock in northern Iraq and the new Syria operation can be seen as a natural extension of the latter.
Looking deeper into this issue, however, it is alleged that Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service, was behind planting bombs in countries such as Iraq and Egypt to create fear among the Jewish population pushing them to migrate to Palestine.
NATO was hesitant to get involved in the uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa after the Iraq and Afghanistan experiences, and failed to reach a consensus among its member states on Syria or Libya.
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In the MENA region, Iran has conducted trade in national currencies with Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq, and is seeking further trade with Turkey which has been reluctant in growing its trade in national currencies due to sanctions.
Equally important, attacks against military targets located in civilian areas have also been documented in Palestine, Iraq, and Afghanistan, where the harm is undoubtably and disproportionately higher than the benefits.
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Growing complexity of global politics
As each administration struggled to exit the quagmires of Iraq and Afghanistan, it was obvious that U.
invasion of Iraq in 2003, the Russian invasion of Georgia in 2008, the unlawful withdrawal of the United States from the Iran nuclear deal in 2018, and Israel's bombing of Gaza, can be analyzed as decisive in shaping Putin's Ukraine policy.
Also, the Fatah Alliance and other Iran-backed parties affiliated with the Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF) rejected Iraq’s recent parliamentary election held in October 2021 and tried to further destabilize the already chaotic Iraqi politics.