This time however, Iran was directly targeted and it was asserted that the attacks were carried out by Iran-backed Houthis in Yemen.
Since the start of the Arab revolutions in 2011, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi have worked hard for the failure of the revolutionary process and have been directly involved in political processes in Egypt, Yemen and Libya.
During the Yemeni Civil War, which made its mark on the Middle Eastern political history and is characterized as the “Arab Cold War”, Nasser backed republicans whereas Saudi Arabia supported the Zaidis.
This axis had an active role in the coup process that occurred in Egypt in 2013, in the descent of Tunisia into political crisis following 2013, in the deep chaos that ensued in Yemen following 2015 and in the Syrian crisis becoming impossible to solve.
Since the beginning of the Arab Spring in 2010, the civil wars that erupted in Syria, Yemen, and Libya, together with the tensions in Iraq, Lebanon, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, and Palestine, are all signs of an on-going covert war in the region.
The UAE-Saudi-led coalition has been suppressing the democratization process of the Arab world – first in Egypt, then in countries like Yemen, Libya, Algeria – and supporting authoritarian regimes to resume after the toppling of half a century old despotic rulers.
The IRGC coordinated proxy wars and conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Lebanon.
While Saudi Arabia’s relations with a number of Arab monarchies have experienced some strain such as Kuwait and Oman as well as outright diplomatic crises in the case of Qatar and Morocco, Jordan is seeking to gain greater autonomy from Riyadh’s geopolitical orbit at a time in which more players in the Arab world are growing more unsettled by vague Saudi reactions towards some regional issues including the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Sudan, Libya, Algeria and Lebanon.
It can be argued that the motivations of protestors that led the toppling of the Al-Bashir government were similar to that of the masses during the Arab revolution protests that began in December 2010 in Tunisia, and which followed in Egypt, Libya, Syria, and Yemen.
The country overstretched its capabilities in a vast territory from Syria to Yemen and from Iraq to Lebanon.
Although the UAE and Qatar (the GCC’s two wealthiest states in terms of income per capita) did not experience major unrest during the Arab Spring, the other four member-states of the Council plus Yemen did to varying degrees, demonstrating how the Gulf region was no longer fortressed from the turmoil throughout the rest of the greater Middle East.
Being constrained by Russia in Syria and inconclusive war in Yemen led by the U.
Critics such as the United Nations, Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch, have particularly raised their voice against the UAE for its role in the humanitarian catastrophe in Yemen.
This is also one of the models we are currently working on for Yemen.