and Russia in critical conflict zones increasingly led to the adoption of hard-power assets, leading some observers to conclude that the prospects of physical military confrontation are higher than the Cold War.
Nas added that the 2008 global financial crisis that took a toll on Greece, the Ukraine-Russia tensions, Russia’s expansionist policies and refugee crises have all respectively triggered concentric pressures on Europe.
In another agreement signed in the same year, it was announced that France sold two mistral warships (initially produced for Russia but the sales were suspended because of Europe’s sanctions following the war in Ukraine) for about 1 billion U.
Considering the US interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq along with Russia’s annexation of Crimea and half of Georgia, it is possible to foresee that the era of division is over and that actors will move towards expansion.
Although the second term of the Obama administration was a nightmare for traditional US allies including Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Ukraine, Obama’s policies produced a favorable environment for the US’s rivals like Iran, Cuba, and Russia.
The default alternative is the continuation of the Cold War alliance structure with slight modifications, where Russia is perceived as an anti-American power that needs to be contained, whereas China continues to be the most favoured nation in economic terms as part of a quasi-appeasement strategy.
Although Turkey's entry into Syria can be a sign of increasing cooperation between all players in the Syrian battle – which gives more hope for positive results – it is impossible to predict how long this cooperation will last, especially at the level of the relationships between the US, Turkey, Russia and Iran.
Professor Aktürk extensively analyzed the growing political and military influence of Russia in the Caucasus, Ukraine, and the Middle East, the Western inaction to this and Turkey’s efforts to multiply its policy options in the region.