It did not reflect an alliance by conviction, but it was due to their military, economic and political weakness at the time that neither Russia nor China raised objections in the Council.
Later in March 2014 and November 2015, Turkey downed a Syrian and a Russian military aircraft, respectively.
” Erdogan has on numerous occasions said “the world is bigger than five”, a reference to the five permanent Security Council members: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Likewise, the Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov has also emphasized Russia’s stance on the issue by expressing Moscow's support for the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq.
In this respect, Turkey should improve relations with global powers like Russia and China, while emphasizing cooperation and tensions with regional powers like Saudi Arabia and Iran.
fter the Cold War and the demise of the Soviet Union, Russia was preoccupied with domestic reforms and works of reconstruction for almost ten years.
President Erdoğan had one-on-one meetings with leaders of prominent countries including the US, Russia, China and India.
Since many global powers are endeavoring to strike a balance in Syria, reminiscent of the power balances in the 19th century, and the Western allies are overtly attempting to undermine the national security of Turkey in the region; Turkey is spurred to seek new formulas that would balance its conventional Western engagement occasionally with Russia or other emerging powers.
Beijing inaugurated the Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB) together with more than 45 countries in 2016 and the Silk Road Fund with Russia in 2015, allocating a huge amount of money to finance and materialize all these ambitious mega projects in the near future.
Due to China’s increasing presence in global economy and politics since 2000s, Turkey had to establish a new form of relations with China, a first after the US, EU and Russia.
That is to say, Syria’s, Iran’s and Russia’s missiles, which may launch either from their borders or indeed from deeper into their territories, would be capable of reaching the most strategic points of Turkey.
Turkey is an important actor playing a critical role in securing and supplying energy because of its geographical position and has the advantage of being a rare country that can sit on the bargaining table with almost all the big energy producing countries such as Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan and Qatar.
As far as we know, today the politicians in China, Russia, Europe or the US don’t refer to history that much? What would you say about this? They only employ symbols from time to time and that’s it.
The default alternative is the continuation of the Cold War alliance structure with slight modifications, where Russia is perceived as an anti-American power that needs to be contained, whereas China continues to be the most favoured nation in economic terms as part of a quasi-appeasement strategy.
Restoring relations with Russia, depreciation of the TL and moderate oil prices are positive signs for the current account balance.
election results, Trump’s relationships with the EU, Russia and Iran are also likely to produce complicated economic effects for Turkey in positive or negative ways.
Despite being a NATO member, Turkey has self-consciously avoided playing the counterbalancing strategic actor in the region vis-à-vis Russia and has kept policy cooperation with each and every state in the region in neat and self-contained “boxes.