For many, northern Iraq was a safe area that could be defended using its own forces, independently from Iraq’s central administration.
Also, Kazakhstan’s experts believe that, from an economic perspective, Iran’s potential membership in the EAEU will have a huge impact on the economy of the Central Asian nation.
At the same time, Washington cannot simply avoid the repercussions of containing China (“the strategic threat”) and Russia (“an opponent”) for the Middle East, Africa and Central Asia.
In a quest for geopolitical advantage, China is casting its lot with the most despised reactionaries of Islamdom—the predatory generals of Egypt and Syria, the feuding tyrants of the Persian Gulf, and the fossilized police states of Central Asia.
The BRI is intended to entrench China’s strategic advantage as the central hub of the world’s supply and value chain, exporting excess capacity to meet a massive global deficit for transport infrastructure.
That was even the case during the Soviet time when the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was a de facto tsar, while members of the Central Committee played the role of boyars.
Evangelical voters are having an ever-growing influence on Central American countries as well.
The active role of slave-trading as part of the economic success of cities such as Bristol or Liverpool is treated more as a footnote than a central part of British history and the countless political, social and cultural figures such as (previously mentioned) Sir Francis Drake, Edward Colston or Cecil Rhodes (the benefactor of Rhodes scholarships and a famous 19th century imperialist with white supremacist views whose statue is currently being removed by Oxford University) or institutions such as the insurance body Lloyds of London (who have recently announced a vague initiative towards slave-related reparations) have up until now been seamlessly edited through centuries of history.
Erdogan emphasized the long-term strategic importance of the economic partnership between the two countries, saying that Kuwait is Turkey's gateway into the Gulf, while Turkey is Kuwait’s route into Europe and central Asia.
The Chinese project aims to build both a terrestrial corridor across central Asia and a maritime corridor across the Indian Ocean and Africa.
When Turkic states in Central Asia gained their independence in in the 1990s, it was at this point that a great opportunity opened up in front of Turkey to reposition itself towards other Turkic nations.
This solution would likewise maintain the sovereignty of the domestic currency excluding the need for a centralized institution like the European Central Bank, and all the supranational superstructure that has accompanied it.
A quarter century after the USSR – a state based on enforcing an extremely radical and violent version of those universalist Enlightenment ideals -- disintegrated, is it any wonder that the politics of the various successor states are dominated by nationalism? How much ordem e progresso was achieved by the modernizing military juntas of Central and South America? What about the modernizing elites of Africa’s de-colonizing societies, after taking over the administrative and security institutions already established by the colonizing powers, intoning après nous le déluge in order to obtain weapons and massive development credits from those former colonizers? Did the native administrators – subordinate to the colonizers but lords over their own peoples -- of the South and Southeast Asian British, Dutch, and French colonial empires quickly provide liberté, egalité, fraternité to all of the masses they inherited regardless of caste, gender, ethnicity, or religion? Unfortunately, the vast majority of Westerners have little idea about the details of how these questions have continued to develop over the past century.
For example, the joint contribution of the parties to ensuring security in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the security of the Black Sea basin, can be noted on the basis of the regime envisaged by the Montreux Convention, etc.
This process has made central governments focus on national issues, rather than international ones.
Geopolitical stability in the Black Sea The Black Sea region has emerged as a major potential venue and the playing field of multiple actors and forces, as the region suddenly transformed into a potential major trading hub between Central Asia and Azerbaijan on the one hand and Europe on the other.
Especially when it comes to sensitive issues for bilateral relations, in particular, Syria and the post-war settlement in the country, the Crimea and the Crimean Tatars, relations in the Turkey-Ukraine-Russia triangle, and Russian-Turkish competition in the Central Asia and Caucasus region.
Sisi has employed various mechanisms in order to become a central actor in Africa.