However, it is also a noticeable trend that groups from the Caucasus and Central Asia have increasingly been targeted by police operations in the country.
More nationalist discourses started to dominate multilateralist voices and security diplomacy started to become more central actors to Turkey’s foreign policy making since both the Turkish public and Turkish decision makers are getting increasingly disappointed by the US and EU’s indifference to its security concerns.
In 2006, despite the fact that important candidates such as the late Adnan Buyukdeniz and Deputy Prime Minister Mehmet Simsek were available to be appointed to the central bank, they were appointed due to the ideological defenses of the then president.
The revenue of $5 billion in 2015 which was attained through selling real estate to citizens of Central Asia, Russia, the UK, and Germany is expected to be doubled gradually (Table 2).
Analysts used the dramatic term “the contract of the century” to describe the emergence of an energy highway from Baku to Ankara via Tbilisi that would link the energy resources of the Caspian Basin and Central Asia to Europe.
Secondly, the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey and Qatar Central Bank can also make an agreement that will enable the use of local currencies as the medium of exchange in bilateral trade.
The institutionalization of the development assistance, however, could be achieved only after the establishment of the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) in 1992, whose aim was to support transition economies primarily in Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Balkans.
Second, and more critically for Turkish-American relations, there is also a broad agreement, including both right and left wing, conservative and secular journalists in Turkey, that the Gülenists were cultivated and nurtured by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Cold War, both as a staunchly anti-Soviet and pro-American movement, and as an instrument with which to discipline the Turkish state and society while constructing a new kind of “moderate Islam.
Adherents of the movement constituted a powerful web of institutions that extracted capital and human resources across a wide geography that spans from Latin America to Sub-Saharan Africa and from the United States to Central Asia.
1st Group is responsible for the Pacific countries (USPACOM area), 3rd Group is active in western Africa (USARAF area), 5th Group in the Arabian Peninsula and Central Asia (CENTCOM area), 7th Group in the Latin American countries (USSOUTHCOM) and 10th Group in Europe (USEUCOM area).
The central bank could also loosen its monetary policy to the extent permitted by the interest rate decisions of the Fed and other major central banks.
As the secret arrangement gradually became operational with the eventual defeat of the Central Powers, including Germany and the Ottoman Empire, the seeds of hate and mistrust began to be sown in the region.
A parallel reflection of the dialectical history of paradigmatic shifts in macroeconomic policy making depicted above that Ilene Grabel called “productive incoherence” (2013: 563) could also be discerned in the historical trajectory of central banking.