Turkey’s convergence with the United Kingdom, France and Italy
Alongside these problems confronted in relations between Turkey and Germany, the Ankara administration leaned towards other European actors with whom more rational relations could be established.
The importance of the Afrin operation for Ankara is to pressure, especially the UnitedStates, for the elimination of the PKK presence along the Turkish border in the eastern flank of the Euphrates, not to mention Manbij.
Since the UnitedStates decreased its support for the Syrian rebels, in contrast to Russia and Iran who massively increased their support for the loyalist forces, Syrian rebels have constantly been losing ground.
Despite the high-profile participation, the fact that the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Bahrain sent low-ranking representatives to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) summit held in Istanbul on 13 December, 2017, upon the call of President Erdogan, caused heated discussions in Turkey and the region.