Since the beginning of the Arab Spring in 2010, the civil wars that erupted in Syria, Yemen, and Libya, together with the tensions in Iraq, Lebanon, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, and Palestine, are all signs of an on-going covert war in the region.
Jordan—unlike Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)—has not designated the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization, which reflects the king’s feeling that there is an ambush for both Palestinians and Jordanians that would deprive them of their right to be accountable for the holy sites in the old city of Jerusalem.
In addition, it is necessary to note that Iran, along with Russia and Turkey, is an important participant of the Astana process on the Syrian Civil War, with whom Russia is engaged in an active political dialogue.
Despite several confusing trends, it is weird that Turkey’s main center-left political party, namely the main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP), regularly address Syrian refugees in a discriminatory tone – similar to that of European far-right circles.
More than 40 years of political conflict in Cyprus, an eight-year war in nearby Syria, which has led to global powers ramping up military capacity in the region, the possibility of attacks by various terrorist organizations, and the involvement of global powers, have left regional states crippled, unable to commercialize a gas reserve estimated to be around one-third of U.
Especially when it comes to sensitive issues for bilateral relations, in particular, Syria and the post-war settlement in the country, the Crimea and the Crimean Tatars, relations in the Turkey-Ukraine-Russia triangle, and Russian-Turkish competition in the Central Asia and Caucasus region.