But they also believed that such a Jewish state in a sea of Arabs, who are mostly Muslim, would act as a useful functional entity, a colonial outpost, to maintain control and hinder revival following the rock-bottom decline epitomised by the fall of the last Islamic Caliphate.
A final reason behind the reforms of Saudi Arabia is to silence the Islamic opposition in the country.
It rallies to “protect the respective country or ‘whole Europe’ from ‘Islamization’ and mass immigration.
However, whether or not he has lost his first love, Istanbul-- which he frames as Islambul, remains unclear not only because of the election result but also due to the changing nature of politics in Turkey.
During the 1980s, as tension between Islamist groups and the government increased, the Muslim Brotherhood did not have a sharp stance (unlike other conservative Islamic movements).
Yet recently more Turks are paying closer attention to the deepening relationship between the Kurdish, Marxist group and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which must be understood within the framework of Riyadh aligning closely with Abu Dhabi’s increasingly anti-Turkish foreign policy agenda in the greater Arab/Islamic world.
Just like the time when philosopher Elizabeth Badinter said that those designing clothes for Muslim women are not French and called to boycott a number of British, Italian and American brands, saying shamelessly in an interview, “don’t be afraid to be called Islamophobic.
Ardern's wearing a black headscarf and hugging relatives of the victims was a symbolic act by her that has been received with much emotions, not only by the Muslim community in New Zealand, but the global Islamic world.
Warlord zones, rebel territories, Islamist militias and tribal fiefdoms scattered the country.
They are known as the biggest calligraphy medallions of Islamic culture.
This is how the Washington Post concluded its piece on the executions: “Egypt has been battling Islamic militants for years.
In March 2016, the Supreme Disciplinary Board forcefully removed 47 judges who were part of a group being charged of being “pro-Islamist.