The question is, why is Gülen’s extradition so crucial for Turkey? FETO acts more like a messianic organization rather than a simple Islamic faction and it purposefully strives to secure strategic state institutions and governmental posts.
It did everything to capture positions and titles in various governmental organisations, while disguising itself like a chameleon, as some of its member had lived unacceptable lives from the standpoint of Islam for decades, even though they were in fact adherents of a seemingly very conservative religious organisation.
Obwohl die FETO sich jahrelang als eine friedliebende, islamisch-geprägte Organisation vorgab und seit 1999 von Gülen aus dem Ausland ferngesteuert wird, erfolgte eine endgültige und schleichende Transformation dieser Gruppierung zu einer nahezu geheimen, messianischen Bewegung, die den türkischen Staat in all ihren Strukturen zu unterwandern bezweckte.
So far, the Islamist, Alevi and Turkish nationalist dimensions of the identity polarization in Turkey have been either avoided or underestimated, owing to the absence of direct confrontations and violence.
Education is a fundamental part of the belief system of Islam.
This perception was in part fuelled by the belief that Tehran had been the main sponsor of terrorist groups in Turkey with the intention of exporting its particular brand of Islamism to neighboring countries.
Supporting private equity and venture capital and increasing Islamic finance products such as sukuk might encourage savings in Turkey.
Arabs were, in the early 1920s, and still are a single “nation” on account of the unity of their language (Arabic), ethnicity (predominantly Arab), and (a prevalent) religion (Islam).
A recent effort at reconciliation was made just before the summit of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in Istanbul in April 2016.
The Egyptian Foreign Minister’s visit to Turkey during the Organization of Islamic Cooperation summit last month was an indicator of Sisi’s position—the minister only stayed for a couple of hours in Turkey, and left without conducting any diplomatic meetings with his counterpart.
Firstly, the elections were held to determine not only the 290 members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, otherwise known as the Iranian Parliament, who serve four years but also the 88 clerics of the Assembly of Experts, a critical body of the power structure in Iran, who are also popularly elected for an eight-year term.
Some citizens, especially those of Islamic and Kurdish identity, used to be less equal than others before the law.